The picture below shows what a typical "turbine field" looks like once these metal behemoths have invaded our rural landscape. They have spread across Southwestern Ontario like a rapidly proliferating black mold, and have now infiltrated the Grand River watershed lands. In my opinion these additions to our natural landscape are unnecessary since we are blessed with clean hydroelectric power from the north and from Niagara Falls, from natural gas plants (many now dismantled by the Provincial Government in what has become a huge scandal), and clean coal fired generators with scrubbers. One may also include the Darlington and Bruce nuclear facilities here. The reason for the recent shift away from all these sources is politics. "Green energy", which includes these towers and solar panel "farms", are seen as producing "clean energy", as opposed to the previously named alternatives. Some politicians have been keen to embrace this concept, and have slipped into bed with corporations that build the technology seen as the "wave of the future". The article found here includes some very poignant local examples of the downside of "going green" via wind turbines.
The citizens in Toronto are not infected with these eyesores, it is in the backyards of rural Ontarians, few in number and insufficiently organized to mount an offensive against this imposition, who are impacted directly. But to add insult to injury, there are neighbours who are capitalizing on the proliferation of wind turbines and solar panels, without any consideration of the adverse effects on those who live in the same region. The "neighbours" here, involved in fraud and "dirty dealings", are the Six Nations of the Grand River.
Agreements Pertaining to Lands within the Nanfan "Treaty" of 1701:
Few have even questioned the legitimacy of transactions pertaining to property in Norfolk County (e.g., Port Dover, Port Rowan), where Six Nations claim "rights". I suspect that, after Caledonia 2006 and other work stoppages caused by Six Nations members, power companies and governments at all levels are willing to turn a blind eye in the service of keeping the heat down - and truth and justice can be conveniently ignored. In fact Six Nations do have a clear rationale for their actions, although it is baseless and rests on the foundation of a fraudulent deal. Here an agreement dating back almost 300 years, although never legally recognized by the Crown, drives this assertion of "rights". I am speaking of the so called "Nanfan Treaty" of 1701 where 20 Five Nations Chiefs alienated their claim to lands in Southwestern Ontario, obtained by right of conquest, actually genocide (complete obliteration of peoples such as the Neutral \ Attiwandaronk), and placed themselves under the protection of the British Crown. The document records their "expectation" that they would retain beaver hunting rights in this area - oddly nothing about wind turbines was mentioned. However in 1701, actually from 1696 (and until 1784), the land belonged to the Mississauga, who had destroyed all eight Five Nations settlements on the north side of Lake Ontario, thereby dissolving any "rights" to the area that the Six Nations might wish to claim at a later date.
Thus it is irritating to some when facts get in the way of a strongly held belief, in this case among the Six Nations in their own superiority. I was taught that my Mohawk ancestors "cleared" Southwestern Ontario of occupants (competitors in the fur trade), and that the land was kept by the Six Nations Onkwehonwe as an area in which to hunt and fish, right up until the time of the American Revolution. I was sadly misinformed, and the truth came as a complete surprise - but the cold hard facts do not lie. The Mississauga and their allies had taken the land from the Five (now Six) Nations by conquest in 1696 and never from that point did the Six Nations challenge the Mississauga claim to land rights north of Lakes Ontario or Erie. Thus, due to common misconceptions, it is not surprising that the Six Nations have been able to use to use a fraudulent "treaty" to assert "land rights" across Southwestern Ontario. Beliefs and false information tend to die hard. See here for a thorough review of the evidence.
Returning to the matter of turbines in the area encompassed by the Nanfan "Treaty", a couple of days ago I took a drive south through Jarvis to Port Dover. It was a jaw dropping experience. I have been away for some months and could hardly recognize the landscape, it was hugely distorted with an excess (well, one is one too many) of wind turbines with blades spinning, some in unison. Below is a picture of the erection of one of these monsters taken from the Simcoe Reformer.
We are seeing only the thin edge of the wedge. However, a sense of what is "on the way" can be seen in the array of turbines, situated on the Lake Erie side of Highway 6 just north of Port Dover, shown below in a picture taken by the author on 9 April 2014.
A good summary of what Six Nations will garner from asserting rights via the Nanfan "Treaty" and doing absolutely nothing (other than not protesting) in the Norfolk area can be seen here. What follows is interesting re projections of revenue to Six Nations from one of these two projects: According to the business plan, Prowind has invited Six Nations to be a 10% equity partner. Its contribution will be $1.8 million, which is estimated to generate revenue in excess of $3 million over 20 years. This is small potatoes in relation to the comparable projects of the Korean industrial giant Samsung in the Haldimand Tract - more later.
However all is not a bed of roses for turbine projects in the "general Nanfan area". In January 2013 members of Men's Fire (associated with the Hereditary Council and Haudenosaunee Development Institute) went on a "roving" protest movement around Nanticoke, as seen here, disrupting various operations in that vicinity. The stated reason for their action was the company's insistence on the removal of an eagles nest (see picture below). Someone more cynical than myself might say that it had more to do that the fact that the deals had been with the Elected Council, leaving the Hereditary Council out in the cold once again.
A very detailed description of every imaginable facet of the Summerhaven Wind Energy Project can be seen here. It is situated around the town of Jarvis extending to the border of the Haldimand Tract, and down to Lake Erie between about Nanticoke and Sweets Corners. This largely involves Walpole Township, within Haldimand County, but not within the Haldimand Tract.
In May of 2012 there was a heated debate at Six Nations about turbines and solar panels, specifically over the Summerhaven Project near Jarvis (noted above) which was just getting underway. In effect the Elected Council approved of this work and in principle for such projects on the Reserve. Members of the Hereditary Council were against the Summerhaven Project and were upset that a while back Chief Montour of the Elected Council had gone on record as saying he would lie down in front of the bulldozers before he would see this in his backyard, but he had "done a 360". See here for the article about the matter. Well, all that changed. The Jarvis "field of nightmares" is now well underway, and it is, in my opinion, a hideous eyesore and it saddens me that these "creatures" have so ruined the landscape. No one is lying down in front of the bulldozers - it is full steam ahead.
A few pictures of what is presently in place here are seen below. Here a turbine is rather close to a house just east of Jarvis along Highway 3. Wonder how owner feels about this.
The picture below was taken from the cemetery behind a church in Jarvis. I am sure that the symbolic meaning is not lost on readers.
Belief that Consultation and Agreement with the Six Nations is Mandatory: There is (or was) an agreement in place whereby Six Nations will be consulted, and information shared, in any project planned for the various municipalities in the Grand River watershed (and the Grand River Conservation Authority). The reason being that, "all parties acknowledge that there are outstanding land issues in the Notification Area". Thus the Grand River Notification Agreement was born on 3 October 1998, to be renewed every 5 years. I am not sure whether the agreement was renewed in October 2013 as per the plan of this document. However, this is an agreement without "teeth". It specifically states that, "This Agreement is not legally binding on any of the Parties, ........ " However, perception is reality. Thus if a developer sees this agreement as having more clout than it does, they may come to the conclusion (especially if a van load of activists show up) that they do really need to consult, irrespective of the validity of the matter. For details see here.
Recent research suggests that a "team" or "policy known as, Consultation and Accommodation Policy (CAP), see here, but you will need to scroll down the middle column to the link at the very bottom, instituted by the Elected Council as a body similar to the Haudenosaunee Development Institute (HDI) affiliated with the Hereditary Council, see here, has been assembled with the goal of "accommodation" meaning developers and corporations handing over mega dollars to Six Nations (in this case the Elected Council). Both assert "rights" in relation to the fraud known as the "Nanfan Treaty", or invalid claims to land in the Haldimand Tract ceded upwards of 170 years ago. There is no legal reason why anyone would have to "accommodate" with either the HDI or CAP, but it seems that in order to avoid "problems" (work stoppages subsequent to the arrival of one or more vans filled with "land protectors", otherwise known as goons) who enforce the will of one of these two competing groups. It would appear that the group involved here is CAP since the Elected Council is reaping the financial benefits ("accommodation") of "consultation" in this instance. In fact the Elected Council are the formally recognized body to negotiate with governments, organizations or individuals since it replaced the Hereditary Council in 1924 - a controversial move that constantly reverberates even today.
However, to repeat, consultation, let alone accommodation, is not mandatory in relation to the Six Nations in Southwestern Ontario including the Haldimand Tract - it just keeps the likelihood of protesters shutting down say the construction of an industrial turbine at a minimum.
Agreements Pertaining to the "Haldimand Proclamation" of 1784:
The map below shows the array of wind projects in and near the Haldimand Tract, the boundary of the latter (Regional Road 20) is shown as a line traversing diagonally from the top left to Lake Erie with most of the Samsung GREP turbines to the right (east) in South Cayuga and Dunn Townships. The latter boundary is the line running vertically with its southern end facing the word "Erie" seen in Lake Erie. This township extends to the far right of the map where the Grand River enters Lake Erie at Port Maitland - and includes the Dunnville Airport lands.
Both of these townships fall within the Haldimand Tract (and todays Haldimand County) and come under, according to Six Nations negotiators, not only the Nanfan "Treaty", but also contested land claims in the area bounded by the "Haldimand Proclamation". The latter comprised a tract set aside for the Six Nations as compensation for lands lost during the American Revolution. These were purchased by Governor Sir Frederick Haldimand in 1784 from the Mississauga. The lands were granted to the Six Nations with right of "occupancy", but with all other land rights vested in the Crown. The Six Nations were not granted the land in fee simple where an individual Indian could then sell or lease land at his or her pleasure, but rather to a group who held the land in common as was the case before the Revolution in the homeland of what is today Upstate New York. Note that the Six Nations are not aboriginal to Southwestern Ontario, only Upstate New York. Thus if the Six Nations wished to sell parts of the Tract, they could only do so by a surrender to the Crown who in turn would issue a Crown Deed to the purchaser, and the monies would be deposited in the Six Nations Trust Fund. By far the best resource for this information is Charles M. Johnston, The Valley of the Six Nations: A Collection of Documents on the Indian Lands of the Grand River, Toronto, The Champlain Society, 1964.
Claim of Unceded Lands in the Haldimand Tract: The reason why Six Nations have become a party to the negotiations between for example Samsung, who manufactures the wind turbines, the Ontario Provincial Government, and individual land owners, is linked to their claim of owning "unceded" lands in South Cayuga and Dunn Townships (as well as the fraudulent Nanfan claim). To anyone familiar with the area, its history, and in particular its Crown deeds as registered in the Ontario Land Registry system, one might think on first pass that this is a wild desperate unsubstantiated attempt to use leverage against weak willed officials to impose their (Six Nations) will - irrespective of the facts. Could be, but surely it is more complicated.
The evidence is as follows. Surrender Number 38 occurred on 8 February 1834, ten years prior to the general surrender of 1844, 21 of the "Sachems or Chiefs" of the Six Nations, doth grant, bargain, sell, release, surrender and for ever yield up to "His Majesty William the Fourth", the Township of Dunn, and the parts of Moulton, Canborough, and Cayuga Townships (later split into North and South Cayuga Townships) not already surrendered. Those who signed included Henry Brant, Oneida Joseph, Jacob Martin, John [Smoke] Johnson, Laurence Davids, William Alvis, and Jacob Johnson, all well known and respected chiefs who participated in the surrenders of the 1840s which resulted in the Reserve taking its present shape. See, Canada, Indian Treaties and Surrenders from 1680 to 1890, Vol.1, The Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1891, pp. 91-94. Soon after the surrender, Crown patents were issued to purchasers for the 100 acre lots that had been surveyed by Lewis Burwell, and the deeds were registered on title, and can be found to this day in the Land Registry Office in Cayuga. So this begs the question, how can Six Nations claim "unceded" land in a parcel that was surrendered in its entirety, even the portion including the Grand River itself, in 1834. As an aside, this has immense implications, particularly considering the Six Nations claim for compensation for the flooding due to the Welland Feeder Canal and dam in Dunnville - for lands they had already surrendered. Considering the $125 million dollar offer by the Federal Government for compensation for damage to lands not then owned by Six Nations, one wonders how vigilant their researchers are in scrutinizing detail - or whether politics intervened to trigger the generous offer (with taxpayer money) - which was turned down, the counter offer from the Six Nations negotiator being one billion dollars - for flooding to lands, the documents show, they did not own after 1834. However, it is in finding an unproven sentence in one letter that Six Nations base their claim for still retaining "unceded" lands in Dunn and South Cayuga.
a) South Cayuga Township, among the 29 land claims registered with the Federal Government by Six Nations is Number 18: "Cayuga Township South Side of the Grand River". Admittedly the Council Minutes and the correspondence of the 1840s can be confusing to the uninitiated since the Chiefs changed their minds, and changed their options, on a number of occasions. Occasionally a misconception can be found in those not close to the negotiations (e.g., the Superintendent General residing in Quebec City), but if one reads all of the documents, the details are very clear. It is quite mind boggling to someone such as myself who, over a period of 35 years, has studied all of the documents related to this matter, that the researcher for Six Nations should have to reach and stretch, basically cherry pick, so much to come up with an improbable document expressing impossible decisions in order to "keep South Cayuga in the game". The particulars of the Six Nations claim can be found here.
Basically, the Six Nations researcher does not deny the existence of the above surrender, but asserts that, the Township of Cayuga on the south side of the River was de-surrendered by the Superintendent of Indian Affairs and reserved for the Six Nations in exchange for the Burtch Tract being excluded from forming part of Six Nations Lands. Supposedly this unprecedented act by a Crown official was found in a letter from David Thorburn to J.M. Higginson on 18 April 1846 - but found nowhere in the Council Minutes or any other documents, nor included in the final summation of the various surrenders and description of the boundaries of the Reserve (precisely those of the Reserve of 2014). None of the copious records of the era ever even allude to a "de-surrender". Nothing is found which was written by either Thorburn or any other official up to and including the repeated summary of the negotiations to date found in the Six Nations Council Minutes. Thorburn was meticulous in ensuring each detail was discussed and recorded on more than one occasion and that each time, all of the assembled Chiefs signed a copy of the Minutes. This thorough detailing of the terms of agreement was recorded up to and including the surrender of the Burtch Tract in 1848, and it is entirely consistent with Governor General Lord Elgin's description of the Indian lands of Upper Canada in 1850.
A "de-surrendering" as described by the Six Nations researcher, if true, would likely be an unprecedented act in the entire annals of the British Empire, and as such is thus blatantly improbable. Thorburn would never decide after 10 years of "officially sanctioned settlement" by Europeans, to "turf them out" and pay huge compensation for the improvements they had made (nothing of this nature in the way of compensation is recorded) - by then virtually all lots and concessions were settled. Any such action would also go against the entire premise of creating a compact reserve where all Six Nations could be settled near one another. There is nothing what so ever in the land records (Indian Affairs or County Registry) that any such action was contemplated or taken. So we can dispense with the "de-surrendered" claim as, tactfully, without support.
The question is, why would a competent researcher (I have known the original researcher for numerous years and know that he is dedicated and thorough in this work) make such an outlandish claim of the land being "de-surrendered"? The only reason that makes sense to me is that it allows all the land in both Townships to be classified as "contested", and as such gives leverage in allowing the land claim to remain open and so Six Nations are able to lean on developers (e.g., turbine power companies) to "accommodate" (come up with a cash "agreement").
b) Dunn Township. Inexplicably, the Six Nations Lands and Resources Department considers Dunn Township to be in another category, to the point where they did not submit a specific numbered claim, but rather included it under, "Potential Claims to be Researched". Referring to their website here, it has been labelled, "Purported Surrender No. 38, Dunn Township and parts of Moulton, Canborough, and Cayuga Townships - 50,212 acres". The thrust here seems to be to assert that there were errors or corruption such that monies supposed to be deposited in the Six Nations Trust Fund went astray, and financial compensation is needed to resolve this issue.
What is evident here is that at least in part, the surrenders of the 1830s noted above, especially as they relate to South Cayuga, require verification of the facts pertaining to the land surrenders of the 1840s. These are fully summarized in the report of Joan Holmes and Associates, accepted into evidence by Justice Harrison Arrell of the Superior Court of Ontario in Brantford in 2009, as seen here. It appears that the report may not have been intended for "public consumption" and was leaked. The last time I attempted to access this report I had to use the html cached version - surely there was not an attempt to suppress the evidence? Since by using primary source evidence the report essentially administers the coup de grace to any and all of the Six Nations land claims, it is indeed a crucial document. I have to wonder why, 5 years after this monumental study was completely, has it not been released to the public? Is it because at that point the citizens and taxpayers would then be apprised in one go of the bogus claims that have been made by Six Nations over the years and call into question much of what they assert (without evidence) to be true. Politics of some description, but the public has the right to know when some group is consciously trying to pull the wool over their eyes and confuse them into believing the "party line", and in the process ripping off the taxpayers of Ontario and Canada. Anyway, back to the turbines.
It should be noted that the above map provides a plan for the future, not what one would see today. However, it is astounding how quickly plans become reality on the ground. Completed turbines are primarily seen west of the Haldimand and Norfolk County borders. However, a drive through South Cayuga and Dunn Townships will verify that construction work is well underway.
The Specifics of the Agreements Between Turbine Companies, Haldimand County and Six Nations:
Early (circa 2009) plans of Samsung to install upwards of 200 turbines on the north shore of Lake Erie are seen in the following article (viewed in full here). Quotes follow.
The Ontario government said the two parties have been involved in "months of extraordinarily co-operative effort" toward an agreement that would involve billions of new investment, including in manufacturing facilities.
"Both Samsung C&T Corporation and the government of Ontario are pleased to confirm that efforts are progressing well toward the signing of a historic framework agreement," the government said in a statement.
"While the contents of the proposed agreement remain commercially sensitive, both parties can confirm that Samsung, one of the world's leading companies, proposes to establish a new renewable-energy business in Ontario."
Part of the plan calls for the erection of about 50 of the 200 turbines on sparsely populated forest and scrub lands belonging to Six Nations, near Dunnville, Ont., Chief Bill Montour said Sunday.
In relation to the statement which I bold printed, NO SUCH LAND EXISTS! It is unclear whether Chief Montour is referring to lands in Dunn or South Cayuga Townships, but in neither are there any unceded lands of any description.
An article (see here) reported that, On May 25 2012, Six Nations Band Councilor Bill Montour signed an agreement behind closed doors to create a 515-acre green energy park on Six Nations unceded lands on Sutor Rd. in Haldimand County- East of Hagersville and West of Dunnville . This will be a wind turbine power generation complex in Ontario, which will be the largest of its kind in the world. However, Samsung C&T claims they have rights to the land because Ontario signed an agreement to lease the land to them. One problem is the 515 acre land in question is still under land dispute much like Douglas Creek Estate Land Claim in Caledonia Ontario and Samsung did not receive permission from the traditional Haudenosaunee government in Six Nations to proceed with the project. The author of this article is seeking unity among Six Nations members to join and fight this environmental catastrophe. While the author and I may not see eye to eye on other matters (e.g., the anti United Nations stance), with respect to the turbine matter, I am in complete agreement.
A good photo op, and the chance to put a good spin on this project just before the sod turning can be seen here. The sod turning (actually acid producing and stomach turning) event for the Samsung "Grand Renewable Energy Park" (GREP) project took place in November 2013, as seen here. The picture below from the Simcoe Reformer shows left to right, Haldimand Mayor Ken Hewitt, (former) Six Nations Elected Council Chief Bill Montour, and Korean and Samsung officials.
Here is a description of what is planned: Extensive wind turbine development on the west side of Haldimand has taken place over the past 12 months. This will intensify now that South Korean industrial giant Samsung has begun work on the 250-megawatt Grand Renewable Energy Park. The $1-billion project consists of 67 industrial wind turbines and a 736-acre solar park. South Cayuga is the focal point of the sprawling development.
Specifics of the Samsung Grand Renewable Energy Park (GREP) can be seen here. Some pictures taken by the author 9 April 2014 of the area around the old RCAF hanger at the Dunnville Airport in Dunn Township, adjacent to South Cayuga Township, follow.
9 days later, on 18 April 2014, the following was observed at the same site - four completed turbines shown below taken from a position north of the RCAF hanger; with others in various stages of completion (not shown).
It is interesting to see who gets what out of the deal. Six Nations will collect $65 million over 20 years. The province has sweetened the pot with an additional $10 million. Chief Bill Montour said his band council drove a hard bargain. Some corporate crumbs were dropped along the way:
Samsung also made a gift Thursday of 20 Samsung tablets to the students at Rainham Central Public School. As well, the company gave the RAF museum at the Dunnville Airport an authentic 1940 NA 64 Yale fighter-trainer. An inscription on the side says the plane “starr(e)d” in the movie Captain of the Clouds with James Cagney. Samsung donated the plane because the airport’s owners surrendered their landing and takeoff rights in exchange for hosting Samsung turbines.
So, how much will Haldimand County derive from the deal on the land within its boundaries? One million dollars! So 65 versus 1 million dollars, yet Six Nations does not have a single valid claim anywhere in the vicinity - yet reaps the benefits big time.
Recently, in early 2014, there has been a recognition that the communities most effected, which would appear to be Walpole, South Cayuga and Dunn Townships, should receive some "mitigation" allotment. Hence the Community Vibrancy Fund (CVF) has been established as follows:
Council had previously said the intent of the vibrancy fund was to spend the majority of the money in the communities most affected. Last August, council agreed to spend 80 per cent of the CVF’s gross value of $37.9 million by 2016 in the wards affected by the green energy projects. The remaining 20 per cent could be spent elsewhere within the County.
The vibrancy fund was an agreement made between Haldimand County and the four major green energy companies in the County including Capital Power, NextEra, Samsung and Niagara Region Wind Corporation.
The contract would see the County receive about $2 million a year for the next 20 years, but in August, council agreed to borrow the money upfront and assign them to capital projects sooner.
So the areas where the turbines are in greatest profusion should in theory benefit the most with road paving projects or arenas. However, being a bit cynical, what is to stop Council from "raiding" this fund to use in other areas of greater perceived need - such as the infrastructure for the mega scale McClung Road residential development? See here for the article in the Sachem where the information is found.
Is it fair that Six Nations, whose territory is not being defiled, should receive the lions share of these deals? Is there a reason why they should see a penny of Samsung money? However fair does not factor into deals where there are "contested" land claims, even when they are only sham contested. The bottom line is that the $65 million dollars should be going to mitigation projects in the Townships which are directly impacted - not to Six Nations who has no legitimate reason to be involved in these negotiations. When it is proven in Court that in fact Six Nations has zero claim to this area, and has been aware of this since the 1970s and 1980s, will they be required to pay back the ill gotten gains? Perhaps the expression, "fat chance" applies. A thoroughly disgusted,